E-Shram Portal Analytics (Part II): Understanding the Indian Labour Market
Moving ahead from understanding the Indian labour market with E-Shram Portal analytics now we move to explore and analyse the available information with the help of statistical tools.
Awareness regarding the scheme is a pre-requisite for the success of benefits reaching to the on-ground people. Therefore, we tried to understand the awareness with the number of registrations happened however, from age-groups perspective. Social Security is like investing in the stock market, earlier you start, longer you can plan and gain.
Similarly, we explored the number of registrations in each of the following age-groups, 16-18 years; 18-40 years; 40-50 years; and 50 years and above. This categorization of age-groups has been undertaken by the E-Shram Portal. The numbers of registrations are taken as the level of awareness in each age group. The higher number of registration under a particular age-group would show higher level of awareness. Given the uncertain and volatile world that all of us are living in, early planning and knowledge of social security would back the workers and their families.
Therefore, to analyse the phenomenon, data for all states and Union Territories (UTs) of India has been taken as of 20th June 2022.
E-Shram Portal Analytics: Growth Rate
Firstly, the growth rate of the numbers of registrations was calculated for individual states in a month’s period starting from 20th May 2022 to 20th June 2022. Below is the map of India where each state has been coloured as per the growth rate. The state with deep fall is in dark colour and further followed by other states as per their rate of growth.
It was found that for the numbers of registrations have fallen in most of the states and UTs except Maharashtra, Goa, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Arunachal Pradesh, Punjab, Manipur, and Lakshadweep as they have witnessed a positive growth rate. The fall has been deep for Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Nagaland, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. There has been a moderate level of reduction in the numbers of registrations in the remaining states and UTs. Pondicherry is the only region where there has been no growth.
The categorization of growth rate has been undertaken where states and UTs with a negative growth rate more than 100% to 1000% are category one of ‘Deep Fall’; states and UTs were the growth rate ranges from -100% to 0% are the second category of ‘Moderate Fall’. Last category of states and UTs has 0% growth rate or positive growth rates called ‘Increase or Constant’. On the basis of three categories, states were grouped.
E-Shram Portal Analytics: Correlation
To understand which age group is active in enrolling themselves, correlation between the numbers of registrations and different age-groups across three groups of states has been conducted.
The possible range of values for the correlation coefficient is -1.0 to 1.0. In other words, the values cannot exceed 1.0 or be less than -1.0. A correlation of -1.0 indicates a perfect negative correlation, and a correlation of 1.0 indicates a perfect positive correlation. If the correlation coefficient is greater than zero, it is a positive relationship. Conversely, if the value is less than zero, it is a negative relationship. A value of zero indicates that there is no relationship between the two variables.
Correlation coefficients whose magnitudes are between 0.9 and 1.0 indicate variables which can be considered very highly correlated. Correlation coefficients whose magnitudes are between 0.7 and 0.9 indicate variables which can be considered highly correlated. Correlation coefficients whose magnitudes are between 0.5 and 0.7 indicate variables which can be considered moderately correlated. Correlation coefficients whose magnitudes are between 0.3 and 0.5 indicate variables which have a low correlation.
As can be observed from the table above of correlation between the numbers of registrations and age-groups, the green and yellow colour shows a positive correlation and orange and red colour demonstrates negative correlation.
The positive correlation values in the states with deep fall show that age groups of 16-18 years and 50 years and above have actively enrolled themselves and hence are aware about the portal. Workers from 18-40 years are moderately aware about the portal, however, less number of people from the age group 40-50 years in these states have registered and are aware about the portal.
States with moderate fall demonstrate that people in the age groups of 40-50 years and 50 years and above have registered themselves on a higher number compared to people from the age group of 16-18 years and 18-40 years.
In the states where there was an increase in the numbers of registrations, the relation between the age groups and registrations is mostly negative for three age groups except the 18-40 years. In these states, workers from 18-40 years have taken the lead to register and 16-18 years are lagging behind followed by the age groups of 40-50 years and 50 years and above.
It can be inferred that there is a requirement to increase the level of information dissemination particularly for two age groups, 18-40 years and 40-50 years. They form the labour force of India. Hence they should be guided regarding the social security benefits and schemes, in other words, about the measures how they can protect themselves in hard times.