Swachh Bharat Mission Rural & Urban
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 2nd October 2014. The mission aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to encourage hygienic sanitation practice. The scheme is also known as the “Clean India Mission”.
The project was launched as a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi. It is a nation-wide campaign aiming to clean up the streets, roads, cities and rural areas. The mission aims to achieve an “open-defecation free”.
- To promote cleanliness and hygiene in a wholistic manner.
- To reduce the incidence of open defecation
- To bring improvement in the quality of life in rural areas
- To encourage the concept of sustainable sanitation practices
- To create awareness about health and hygiene.
- To help India reach to India Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6).
- To encourage cost-effective sanitation efforts.
- To develop community managed sanitation systems
- To focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems.
- To create a positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion.
- Phase 1 – from 2014 to 2019 through mass-scale behavior change, construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and implementation of techniques for monitoring toilet construction & usage.
- Phase 2 – It will be implemented over five years from 2021 to 2026 with an outlay of Rs.1.41 lakh crore.
Funding Pattern of SBM Gramin (G) & Urban (U)
The scheme is covered by multi-sectorial funding pattern which includes-
- Budgetary support
- Funding and technical support from the World Bank and international institutions
- Corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives
- Swachh Bharat Kosh (SBK)
An incentive of Rs. 12,000 per toilet as financial incentive is provided to the eligible beneficiaries in rural areas for the construction of Individual Household Latrines. It also covers the provision of water storage.
The funding for constructing toilets will also be met by 3 primary sources – Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation, Ministry of Rural Development, and the States. SBM is a centrally sponsored scheme. Hence the funding ratio will be 75:25 between Centre and State governments for others states, except, for the North Eastern state, it will be 90:10.
- States will contribute a minimum of 25% share towards community toilet projects to match 75% of Central Share (Rs 39,200/- per seat) including North East States and Special Category States
- For UTs without legislature, Central share will be 100% (Rs 52,267/- per seat) For UTs with legislature, Central share will be Rs.39,200/- (80%) per seat while UT share will be Rs 13,067/- (20%) per seat.
- For Urinals –
- States – Unit Cost is Rs. 32,000/- per seat States will contribute a minimum of 25% funds of central share towards urinal seat projects to match 75% of Central Share (Rs. 12,800/- per seat) including North Eastern States and Special Category States.
- For UTs without legislature, Central share will be 100% (Rs 17,067 ). For UTs with legislature, Central share for urinals will be Rs 12,800/- (80%) per seat while UT share will be Rs 4,267/- (20%) per seat.
- All statutory towns will become ODF+ certified (focuses on toilets with water, maintenance and hygiene)
- All statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population will become ODF++ certified (focuses on toilets with sludge and septage management).
- 50% of all statutory towns with less than 1 lakh population will become Water+ certified (aims to sustain toilets by treating and reuse of water).
- All statutory towns will be at least 3-star Garbage Free rated as per MoHUA’s Star Rating Protocol for Garbage Free cities.
- Bioremediation of all legacy dumpsites.
SBM Rural- Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC’s)
CSCs are designed to provide sanitation facilities to communities that lack individual household toilets or where building individual household toilets is not feasible. These complexes consist of multiple toilets, washbasins, and facilities for handwashing, and are usually constructed in public spaces such as marketplaces, bus stops, or parks.
Under the SBM Rural Phase 2, the government aims to construct 1.4 million CSCs across India by 2025. These CSCs will not only provide access to safe and hygienic sanitation facilities to rural communities but also help in promoting hygiene and behavior change towards toilet usage.
The construction of CSCs involves the identification of suitable locations, planning, and design, followed by the construction and commissioning of the facility. The government provides financial assistance to beneficiaries to construct CSCs, and the local authorities oversee the construction and maintenance of these facilities.
Apart from the construction of CSCs, the government is also focusing on behavior change campaigns to promote toilet usage and the adoption of safe hygiene practices in rural communities.
SBM Urban – Community and Public Toilets
Under SBM (Urban), it is estimated that about 20% of the urban households in cities, who are currently practicing open defecation are likely to use community toilets as a solution due to land and space constraints in constructing individual household latrine.
Community toilet blocks will consist of a given number of toilet seats, as per requirements, toilet superstructure including the pan and water closet, and a substructure (either an on-site treatment system, or a connection to underground sewerage/septage system) shared by all the toilet seats and facilities for hand wash.
Community toilets are designed to serve the sanitation needs of a group of people living in a specific area, such as a slum, resettlement colony, or low-income housing area. These toilets are constructed and maintained by the government, local bodies, or private entities, and are equipped with water supply, proper drainage, and waste disposal facilities.
Under the SBM Phase 2, the government has set a target to construct 1.5 million community toilets across the country. The construction of these toilets is being carried out with the aim of providing access to safe and hygienic sanitation facilities to all, especially to women, children, and the elderly.
- The Total no. of seats of Community Sanitary Complexes constructed in Rural area since 2014 to 2022 in the states/UTs are 1,95,528.
- Top positional states are Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra In which maximum no. of CSC’s are in the Uttar Pradesh with 59,618.
- Tripura is the lowest in the states with 191 CSC’s.
- The Average Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC’s) in the states/UTs are 5750.82
- Among all the Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir is in the Top position with total no. of 4000 CSC’s and Lakshadweep is lowest with 0 CSC’s.
- The Total no. of seats of Community and Public toilets constructed in Urban area since 2014 to 2022 in the states/UTs are 6,21,164.
- Top positional states are Rajasthan, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu In which Maharashtra have maximum no. of 1,66,465.
- Arunachal Pradesh is the lowest in the states with 46 toilet seats.
- The Average Community and public toilets in the states/UTs are 13373.5
- Among all the UT’s – Delhi is in the Top position with total no. of 28256 toilets and Ladakh with the lowest of 194.
Individual Household Latrine (IHHL)
- The Total number of Individual Household Latrine constructed in Rural area since 2014 to 2022 in the states/UTs are 10,93,34,664.
- Top positional states are Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, Rajasthan in which Uttar Pradesh has maximum number of 2,22,79,876.
- Sikkim is the lowest in the states with 11,796 number of IHHLs constructed.
- Among all the UT’s – Jammu and Kashmir is in the Top position with total number of 12,65,355 IHHLs and Lakshadweep with the lowest of 0.
- The Total number of Individual Household Latrine constructed in Urban area since 2014 to 2022 in the states/UTs are 62,64,914.
- Top positional states are Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh , Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra In which Uttar Pradesh have maximum no. of 8,97,697.
- Sikkim is the lowest in the states with 1,181 no. of IHHLs constructed
- Among all the UT’s – Jammu and Kashmir is in the top position with total number of 51,246 IHHLs and Andaman and Nicobar Islands with the lowest of 336.
- Total financial aid for construction of Individual Household Latrine under SBM-G is about Rs. 65,230 Crore.
- 5 states where Cost Per Unit for construction of IHHLs are the highest – Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Uttarakhand in which Mizoram is the maximum cost per unit of IHHLs with Rs. 10,560.
- Puducherry is the top most UTs among all the states as well as UTs where the cost of construction per unit is around 12,000.
- 5 states where Cost Per Unit for construction of IHHLs are the lowest – Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Bihar in which Haryana is the minimum cost per unit of IHHLs with Rs 1,700.
- Lakshadweep is the only UT where no construction happened so the cost per unit also null.
- Total financial aid for construction of Individual Household Latrine under SBM-U is about Rs. 3000 Crore.
- 5 states where Cost Per Unit for construction of IHHLs are the highest – Delhi ,Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand in which Delhi is the maximum cost per unit of IHHLs with Rs 345931 .
- 5 states where Cost Per Unit for construction of IHHLs are the lowest – Andaman and Nicobar, Chandigarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand and Bihar in which Andaman and Nicobar is the minimum cost per unit of IHHLs with Rs 1,785.
- For North Eastern and Himalayan States, the Central share will be Rs 10,800/- per IHHL (90% of Rs 12,000/-), and state share will be Rs 1,200/- per IHHL.